Litigation Tips.

Sean O’Shea: Tips for Paralegals and Litigation Support Professionals – August 2021

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8/1/2021: Translate any object
One of the neat things the Google Translate app does is to superimpose a translation into English over writing shown on some object you point your camera on.

8/2/2021: Regex to find dupes
You can use this Regular Expression search to find the first instance where two words repeat one after the other in any text:

8/3/2021: RegEx to find file names
You can use this regular expression search to find file names with a three character extension:  ^[\w,\s-]+\.[A-Za-z]{3}$

8/4/2021: Regex to find social security numbers
Successfully find social security numbers in a text sample. Take off the caret ^ so that you can find SSNs which don’t start at the beginning of a new line.

8/5/2021: WEP WIFI Protocol is Not Secure
If you log on to a WIFI network that is using either WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) or TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol), you should be notified by Windows 10 that the network is not secure.

8/6/2021: Limits of a Relativity Analytics Index
Preprocessing will remove numbers and symbols from an Analytics index, and also render all of the source text as lowercase.

8/7/2021: Changing the Location of an Analytics Index
An admin can change the location of an analytics index or a structured analytics set from their original location on a server. The indexes and structured analytics sets must be in the same location, and only one location can be used for both. While the move occurs, analytics operations cannot be run.

8/8/2021: S.D Ind. Ruling in Case on Former Employee’s Theft of Trade Secrets and Confidential Information
“It behooves both sides to curtail their prolonged, scorched-earth litigation strategies and move, with the guidance of the Magistrate Judge, to a prompt resolution of the remaining disputes.”  Bioconvergence LLC v. Attariwala, No. 1:19-cv-01745-SEB-MG, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 147766, at *32 (S.D. Ind. Aug. 5, 2021).

8/9/2021: Getting started with Relativity Analytics
Perform repeated content identification; assemble conceptually rich documents in a saved search; populate and build the index; perform clustering and categorization.

8/10/2021: Butters’ Law – Networks Keep Getting Faster
The amount of data that can be transmitted by an optic fiber will double every 9 months.

8/11/2021: windows command to get size of files in folder
powershell -noprofile -command “ls -r|measure -sum Length”
Powershell can be activated from command prompt.

8/12/2021: Recording System Only Audio in Windows 10
Use the free app Windows Voice Recorder and set the default Recording device to Stereo Mix.

8/13/2021: Windows command to check network status

8/14/2021: Latent Semantic Indexing
LSI uses a matrix in which each word is listed on a separate row, and each document in a separate column.  The degree of similarity between two documents is calculated by finding the cosine of the angle between the two vectors formed by two columns.   A value close to 1 will indicate they are very similar.  A value closer to 0 will show that they are more dissimilar.

8/15/2021: Latent Semantic Indexing
The math may justify terms being closely associated which have no real relationship, since the average of a word’s meaning in the data set is used. But this discrepancy will be decreased where words in the document set are used consistently in a predominant context.

8/16/2021: 2021 State of E-Discovery
45 percent of legal departments have reported an increase in legal disputes as a result of the COVID pandemic, while only 7 percent have reported a decrease.

8/17/2021: Does Zoom Violate the GDPR?
The Hamburg Commissioner for Data Protection issued a press release yesterday which noted that it has warned the city government about its use of the on-demand version of Zoom.  The Commissioner believes that Zoom does not comply with the provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation.

8/18/2021: Session Initiation Protocol
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is used for realtime communications.   It can be used for VoIP phone calls, and is also used for messaging and video conferencing. Functions can be activated and terminated as needed during a session.

8/19/2021: UltraSearch
UltraSearch is designed to search multiple directories on multiple drives for files and content. It does not create a searchable index, but instead uses the master file table of the Windows file management system.

8/20/2021: Legal Operations
Legal Operations is a new field to which in-house legal counsels have recently given higher priority   The purpose of legal operations is to provide better quality legal services for less money.

8/21/2021: Apple Watch
The Apple Watch synch will not include:
1. credit card information used for Apple Pay
2. text messages
3. the passcode for the device.

8/22/2021: Analytics Classification Index Limit
Note that for classification analytics indexes used for assisted review, Relativity recommends that a data source (the searchable set of documents that conceptual analytics will be run on) contain no more than 9 million documents.  

8/23/2021: Analytics Index Training Data Source Rule of Thumb
Note that the RelativityOne Analytics Guide (available here) provides a guideline for when it will be necessary to add new documents to a training set. With as many as 5,000 new documents it may not be necessary to update the training data source, if you have a total of more than one million documents in the data source. However, if 100,000 documents are added, the training data source set should be updated for the analytics index since the likelihood that the new addition will contain new concepts increases.

8/24/2021: Training Data Source Warning
An index statistics report will display several fields of interest, but pay particular attention to the ‘Average Document Size in Words’ field.  This lists the mean number of words in each document in the training data set.   The value should fall between 120 and 200.   A number below this range may indicate a problem with the training data source.

8/25/2021: Changing Relativity Default Settings on the Server
Relativity allows default settings to be changed by the modification of instance settings in the SQL Server Management Studio application

8/26/2021: How to escape backslashes
Simply use two backslashes in a row, since a backslash is used to escape other characters used in the Regex syntax.

8/27/2021: RegEx search for data between two strings
firststring .*? second string

8/28/2021: deleted iMessages aren’t gone
Make note of the fact that even after a text message is deleted on an iPhone it is still temporarily stored on the device.  An iPhone uses a database to track texts.  A text the user deletes will be checked off as such in the database. 

8/29/2021: Don’t Let Windows AutoPlay
Be sure that your Windows operating system is not set to automatically run files found on flash drives, memory cards, smartphones, and tablets.  The files on these devices may install unwanted malware without warning.   

8/30/2021: words with numbers omitted from Relativity analytics index
When Relativity populates an analytics index it will not include any words which begin with a number.  So for example, 7zip or 4ever, will omitted from an analytics index.

8/31/2021:  Assign Letters Automatically to Files
Don’t miss that Bulk Rename Utility can be used to assign letters to a set of files. In the Numbering section, click on the drop down menu for ‘Type’, which has ‘Base 10 (Decimal)’ as the default. Change the setting to ‘A -Z’.

Sean O'Shea on Email
Sean O'Shea
Litigation Paralegal
Sean O’Shea began working as a litigation support analyst at Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison LLP in 1998, near the dawn of the electronic discovery era. From assisting clients with the implementation of information governance policies, to conducting electronic presentations for attorneys at trials, he has been involved in all aspects of litigation support work. Sean is a Relativity Certified Administrator and an ACEDS Certified E-Discovery Specialist. He’s currently employed as a litigation paralegal in New York City, and continues to advise attorneys on legal technology. Look for a new tip on each night on

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