Digital Forensics

The Practical and Potential Impact of Forensic Investigation

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Something identified in the course of normal eDiscovery often turns a case into a forensics investigation. In a recent webinar, we examined several case studies, and here we dive a little deeper into one of the examples discussed by Dr. Gavin Manes and Lance Watson of Avansic, and Craig Ball of Ball in Your Court.

First, a brief history of the case: State of Oklahoma v. Kevin Bernell Warrior, District Court Tulsa County CF-2014-5106. In March 2016, a jury convicted Kevin Warrior of first-degree murder. He was sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole. In May 2017, a motion was filed to ask for a new trial, and the case was remanded to Tulsa County District Court for a hearing. In January 2018, the court vacated Warrior’s convictions and ordered a new trial. Three months later, the prosecution filed new charges against Mr. Warrior, and in October 2019, the prosecution dismissed the charges against him.

Attorneys that represented Mr. Warrior sought to find additional evidence beyond what was reviewed before the original trial. This included finding new evidence using digital forensic techniques and methods.

As Mr. Watson discussed in the webinar, he was engaged to determine the location of Mr. Warrior’s cell phone on the day of the murder, and to determine this, Mr. Watson looked at the phone’s Mobility Usage Reports. These contain information regarding phone calls, text messages, and aggregate data use of a phone. In many cases, they can also include the location of the cell tower that a phone is using at any given time. Note that it must be specifically requested from the carrier to obtain tower information and that Mobility Usage Reports are typically obtained by subpoena.

Mr. Watson (of Avansic) examined the Mobility Usage Report related to Kevin Warrior’s cell phone on the day of the murder, up to his surrender to police the next day. Examination of these records showed that Mr. Warrior was not at the location of the homicide at the time in question. While his exact whereabouts were not obtainable, the mobility usage report allowed Mr. Watson to place him at another location a minimum distance of many miles from the location of the homicide. This coincided with testimony from Mr. Warrior regarding his whereabouts at the time. When this information was brought to the prosecutor’s attention, a decision was made to release Mr. Warrior from custody and not pursue the murder retrial.

This is one of the three pillars of the geolocation of a device. As discussed in the webinar, there are two others beyond carrier location. Third-party app providers may know location based on security settings. Devices may have data on them that can place it in a specific location; for example, caching map data, caching location data, or simply taking a picture that records location and time. For location app data, the most common source is Google Maps historical timeline (a demonstration of this was given during the webinar). It is important to understand that although all three of these sources aren’t necessary to locate a device, they individually provide compelling evidence.

Want to hear more case studies about eDiscovery moving over to forensics? Read a blog post on a “man in the middle” attack where a savvy eDiscovery reviewer discovered improperly threaded email – and it led to a breakthrough in a fraud case. We also talked about document authenticity and what to look for, which you can learn more about in the on-demand webinar.

Dr. Gavin Manes on Email
Dr. Gavin Manes
CEO at Avansic
Dr. Gavin Manes is a nationally recognized eDiscovery and digital forensics expert. He founded Avansic in 2004 after completing his Doctorate in Computer Science from the University of Tulsa. At Avansic, Dr. Manes is committed to high-technology innovation, research, and mentorship, and has several patents pending. Avansic's scientific approach to eDiscovery and digital forensics stems from his academic experience.

Dr. Manes routinely serves as an expert witness including consulting with attorneys on data preservation issues. He contributes academic content to peer-reviewed journals and delivers classroom lectures. See his full CV at

Dr. Manes has published over fifty papers on eDiscovery, digital forensics, and computer security, countless blog posts, and educational presentations to attorneys, executives, professors, law enforcement, and professional groups on topics from eDiscovery to cyber law. He’s briefed the White House, the Department of the Interior, the National Security Council, and the Pentagon on computer security and forensics issues.

At the University, Dr. Manes formed the Tulsa Digital Forensics Center, housing Cyber Crime Units from local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. He’s a founder of the University of Tulsa’s Institute for Information Security, leading the creation of nationally recognized research efforts in digital forensics and telecommunications security.

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